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Benefits of Metallurgical Level 2 Model 好处冶金二级模型

Great value can be achieved by successful integration of the metallurgical models into the Level 2 systems. 具有极大的价值才能实现成功的一体化的冶金模型到2级系统 In addition to the high accuracy which leads to the high shape quality and high yield, metallurgical issues can be fully addressed in the pass schedule creation and as a result, better product properties can be achieved on a particular facility. 除了精度高而导致的高形成优质高产冶金问题都可以充分讨论的通过创造和时间表因此更好的产品性能才能实现对特定设施

High Accuracy of the Force Prediction 高精度部队预测

A Level 2 improvement project was completed to solve the shape problems incurred in some hard and thin grades [7]. 2级改造工程已完成解决问题的形状发生在一些硬而薄等级 [ 7 ] 。 Analyses revealed high force errors up to 40% in the finish passes. 分析揭示高力误差高达40的成绩及格 Improvements were conducted in the two phases. 改进进行了两个阶段 In the first phase, following work was done: 在第一阶段下面的工作是

  • System learning: applied the so-called guided two-parameter learning, which uses C 1 and C 2 as learning parameters, and about 6000 sets of carefully designed C 3 and C 4 as the fixed values 系统学习适用于所谓的指导两参数的学习使用ç 1和C 2的学习参数约6000套精心设计ç 3和C 4的固定值

  • Metallurgical interaction: considered effects of retained strain, etc. The effects of the retained strain was integrated into the 6000 sets of the flow stress coefficients (C 3 and C 4 ). 冶金相互作用考虑影响保留应变的影响保留株融入6000套流动应力系数 (丙3和C 4 ) 。

  • After the first improvement, the force prediction accuracy was significantly improved and the shape problem was solved. 改进后的第一次部队预测精度显着提高形成问题得到解决 The force error data from the tested samples of the troubled grades are showed in the Table 3. 该部队的错误数据测试样品的困扰成绩显示在表3 The 1% of passes still with the error over 15% was considered as the cause of phase transformation. 1的传球仍然与错误15以上被视为事业的相变

    Table 3 Force error and quality level after first improvement表3队的错误和质量水平提高后,首先

    Error Range误差范围

    All grades, before各年级,前

    Troubled grade, before陷入困境的等级,然后

    Troubled grades, after陷入困境的等级后,

    < 5% “ 5 %

    73% passes通行证73 %

    57% passes 57 %的通行证

    over 80% passes 80 %以上通行证

    < 10% “ 10 %

    90.9% passes 90.9 %合格

    87% passes 87 %的通行证

    over 90% passes超过90 %通行证

    < 15% “ 15 %

    96.4% passes 96.4 %通行证

    94% passes 94 %的通行证

    over 99% passes超过99 %通行证

    The second improvement further increased model force prediction accuracy by modifying the force prediction for the resume pass and by expanding the flow stress valid range. 第二改善部队进一步提高模型预测精度修改了力预报的恢复通行证和扩大流动应力有效范围

    It is anticipated that by applying metallurgical models and improving learning, it is possible to reduce force prediction error by 5-10% for many Level 2 systems. 预计采用冶金模型和改进学习有可能以减少预测误差的力量 5-10 % , 许多二级系统

    Accurate prediction of separating force during rolling is vital to the flatness of the rolled products. 准确预测的分离过程中轧制力是至关重要的平坦的轧制产品 Draft distribution is tied to the force distribution, and a certain force distribution over the passes leads to good flatness of the plate/coil and high utilization of the equipment. 草案分配挂钩的动力分配并在一定力分布的通行证导致平整度好板 / 线圈和高利用的设备 In many cases, temperature from pass to pass is calculated based on the measured force (measured flow stress), so force prediction error also causes temperature error. 在许多情况下温度是通过通过计算测量队衡量流动应力 ) , 因此力预报误差也造成温度误差 In addition, a rolling schedule based on inaccurate force prediction may have more passes than needed; this leads to lower productivity and higher costs (energy, equipment, labor, etc.). 此外一个滚动的基础上不准确的时间表力预报可能比需要更多的传球这会导致较低的生产力和更高的成本能源设备劳动力等) 。

    Besides the shape and dimension problems, an inaccurate Level 2 force model may lead to poor mechanical properties of the rolled product. 除了形状和尺寸的问题是不准确的2级力模型可能导致力学性能的推出产品 For a product order, the required properties (often, mechanical properties) of steel are specified. 对于一个产品订单所需要的属性通常力学性能钢指定 The steel plant usually designates a certain steel grade plus certain rolling procedure to produce the required steel. 钢铁厂通常指定某一钢轧制程序加上某些生产所需的钢材 If the automation system is sufficiently accurate, the finish product should satisfy all the requirements. 如果自动化系统有足够的准确成品应满足所有要求 However, the automation system may have significant error, so the roll separating force, temperature and draft, etc. may be different from what are expected, and as the result, the product quality may be below what is planed. 然而自动化系统可能有重大错误因此辊分离力温度和草案可有什么不同的预期作为结果产品质量可能低于计划是什么 To assure the satisfaction of the property requirements, the steel producer has to plan higher quality of the product than that is required by the customer. 为了保证满意的财产要求钢铁生产商已计划更高质量的产品相比所需要的客户 This causes unnecessary costs for the steel plant. 这会导致不必要的费用的钢铁厂 In addition, some plants conduct mill trials to select the proper rolling procedure for a new product; the cost of these trials is significant.A force error reduction by 10% for the Level 2 system has a great economic value, as estimated in the Table 4. 此外一些工厂进行工厂试验选择合适的轧制程序的一个新产品 ; 的费用这些审判是错误 significant.A 力减少10的二级系统具有巨大的经济价值估计在表4

    Table 4 Benefit for 10% force error reduction 表4效益的10减少武力错误



    Annual Total (US$)年度总(美元)

    Annual Saving (US$)每年可节省(美元)


    Investment Saving 1) 2)投资节水12

    15% 15 %

    20,000,000 20,000,000

    3,000,000 3,000,000

    Equipment life span: 40 years设备寿命: 40年

    Slab grade saving 3)板级节能3

    1% 1 %


    4,000,000 4,000,000

    50% of sales price 50 %的销售价格

    Energy Saving 4)节能4

    3% 3 %

    40,000,000 40,000,000

    1,200,000 1,200,000

    5% of sales price 5 %的销售价格

    Yield increase增产

    1% 1 %


    8,000,000 8,000,000

    1% yield increase 1 % ,产量增加

    Mill test saving for new products 5)轧机测试节能的新产品5

    45% 45 %

    4,000,000 4,000,000

    1,800,000 1,800,000

    0.5% of sales price 0.5 %的销售价格




    1. Data in the table are based on a mill with US$800 million equipment and US$800 million annual sales.表格中的资料是根据工厂的8亿美元的设备和8亿美元的年销售额。
    2. The saving is based on the increase of equipment utilization of 10%, equivalent to 15% of investment.节约是基于增加设备利用率为10 % ,相当于15 %的投资。
    3. When significant force error occurs, higher grade of steel has to be scheduled for an order to guarantee the rolled steel properties.当重要力量出现错误,高年级的钢材,必须定一个为了保证钢材性能。
    4. The increase of energy consumption due to higher grade scheduled.增加能源消耗,由于高年级定。
    5. Some plants conduct mill trial-and-errors for scheduling of new products.一些植物进行轧机试错误安排的新产品。

    Improved pass schedule and slab selection 经过改进的时间表和板坯选择

    As the metallurgical processes are modeled and integrated into the Level 2, two valuable improvements are possible. 由于冶金过程的建模和集成到2级两个宝贵的改进是可能的 The first improvement would be to use the models in the design of the passes through the mill. 首先改善将是利用模式的设计经过磨 The models would be included in the design of an optimum set of passes that maximize the toughness of the steel for the conditions of the mill and rolls, while achieving the precise targets of mechanical strength and dimensions. 该模式将包括在设计一个最佳的通行证最大化了韧性钢的条件轧机和轧辊同时实现了精确的目标机械强度和尺寸 The second application would be the use of the models in the selection of slabs for particular orders. 第二个应用程序将使用该模型在选择砖特别命令 Each steel order has property requirements that depend upon the attributes of the slabs and the capability of the mill, so the optimum chemical composition and dimensions for the slab would be matched with the plan for rolling and quenching of the steel. 每个钢秩序财产要求取决于属性砖和能力的工厂因此最佳的化学成分和尺寸的板将配合该计划的推出和淬火钢

    Pass design - In this application, the design of the particular rolling passes for slab to produce an ordered set of plates would be achieved by the metallurgical level 2. 孔型设计 - 在这种应用中设计的特别通行证板坯轧制生产的有序集的车牌将所取得的冶金一级2 All level 2 models use a heuristic or trial-and-error approach to searching for a set of rolling passes including roll gap, quench, speed and roll shape settings. 所有2级模型使用启发式或试错方法寻找一套滚动通行证包括辊缝淬火速度和辊型设置 In this search a metallurgical level 2 with a complete set of models would calculate the probable strength, toughness, flatness and dimensions for a pass design. 在此搜索冶金级2一套完整的模式可能会计算强度韧性平整度和尺寸的孔型设计 The calculations would project the grain size, shape, phases present and the strain conditions for each rolling pass. 进行这些计算将项目的晶粒尺寸形状相本和应变条件每个滚动通过 The final projection would be compared to the target properties for the ordered set of plates. 最后预测相比将目标属性序集的车牌 Then the gap, quench, speed and roll shape settings would be modified to improve the projections, until a final set of recommendations were complete. 然后差距淬火速度和辊型设置将进行修改以提高预测直到最后一套完整的建议

    The data recorded at the mill would be stored in the database and analyzed to refine the constants in the models. 这些数据记录在轧机将存储在数据库中并进行分析以完善常数的模型 A systematic and statistically valid approach should be used to refine the constants. 系统和统计的有效办法应当用于完善常数 The performance of the model in predicting forces, torques, temperature, yield strength, ultimate strength and dimensional uniformity must reported, and a process engineers should evaluate the reports 性能的模型在预测部队扭矩温度屈服强度极限强度和尺寸的一致性必须报告以及工艺工程师应评估报告

    The use of the metallurgical models in the design of the rolling passes would provide the maximum toughness with a more accurate achievement of the final target properties without unnecessary loss of steel or processing time. 利用冶金模型设计中的滚动通行证将提供最大的韧性以更准确的实现最终目标不作不必要的财产损失钢或处理时间

    Slab selection - The metallurgical models could be used when the line up of slabs is prepared for the rolling mill. 板坯选择 - 冶金模型可以用来当排队的砖是准备轧机 This preparation is processed on the level 2 or the level 3 systems, where an inventory of slabs is available to be selected for ordered steel products, or a list of heats may be available to produce in the melt shop. 该制剂处理的第2级或3级系统在那里的清单砖是可供选择的命令钢材或预赛的名单可产生的熔体店 In either case the metallurgical models would be used with the chemical analyses of the slabs or heats, and the least-cost slabs or heats would be selected with the best yields. 在这两种情况下的冶金模型将被用来与化学分析的石板或加热和成本最低的石板或预赛将挑选最好的产量

    The process of selecting slabs for the ordered plates is a complex mathematical optimization procedure which includes the effect of the slab size and chemical analysis. 挑选过程的砖板的命令是一个复杂的数学优化程序其中包括影响板的大小和化学分析 With the use of the metallurgical models the properties, such as strength and toughness, would be predicted with a selected rolling and quenching plan, and the best slab would be selected. 利用冶金模型的性能如强度和韧性将与选定的预测和淬火滚动计划以及最好的板将被选中 Since the metallurgical models allow more precise prediction of the force and torque limits of the mill, larger reductions would be planned and slabs with lowest content of molybdenum, vanadium and niobium would be selected. 由于冶金模型允许更准确的预测力和扭矩限制的工厂将是更大的削减计划和石板的最低含量的钼铌将被选中

    References 参考资料

    [1] B. Li and J. Nauman, Metallurgical, Modeling and Software Engineering Issues in the Further Development of the Steel Mill Level 2 Models, AIST Annual Conference 2008, May 5 – 8 2008. [ 1 ]湾李和 J. 瑙曼冶金建模和软件工程问题的进一步发展钢厂二级模型AIST年度会议2008年5月5号至8号2008

    [2] I. Tamura, et al., Thermomechanical Processing of High-strength Low-alloy Steels . [ 2 ]一, 田村等 。 , 热加工高强度低合金钢 Butterworths & Co. 1988. 巴特沃思公司1988年 ISBN 0-408-11034-1. 国际标准书号 0-408-11034-1 。

    [3] A. Hensel & T. Spittel, Kraft- und Arbeitsbedarf bildsameer Formgebungsverfahren . [ 3 ]答: 亨泽尔 & T的Spittel卡夫和Arbeitsbedarf bildsameer Formgebungsverfahren VEB Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, Germany. VEB德意志出版社毛皮Grundstoffindustrie德国莱比锡 1977. 1977年

    [4] Y. Saito, et al., The mathemarical model of hot deformation resisitance with reference to microstructural changes during rolling in plate mill. [ 4 ]元齐藤 。 , 该mathemarical模型的热变形resisitance提及的微观组织变化中板轧机轧制 Transaction ISIJ, 1985, 25(11). 交易ISIJ19852511 ) 。

    [5] Suzuki, et al, Studies on the Flow Stress of Metal and Alloys . [ 5 ] 铃木等人研究流动应力的金属和合金 Univ. 大学 of Tokyo. 东京 1968. 1968年

    [6] B. Li and J. Nauman, Metal Pass 108 Mill-Related Projects . [ 6 ]湾李和 J. 瑙曼金属轧机孔型108有关的项目 Online at www.metalpass.com/consulting . 在网上 www.metalpass.com / 咨询

    [7] B. Li, D. Cyr and P. Bothma, Level 2 Model Improvements at Evraz Oregon Steel Mills. [ 7 ]湾 , 4 西尔和 P. Bothma2级模型改进耶弗拉兹俄勒冈钢铁厂 To be published. 将出版

    Metal Pass Resources on Level 2 Model Improvement 金通行证资源二级模型改进

    Metal Pass Work List on Level 2 and Mill Modeling 金属密码工作清单的第2级和轧机建模

    Metal Pass Research Reports 金属密码研究报告

    Technical papers published in the February and March of 2008. Those publications are primarily on Level 2, Level 2 model and process automation. 技术论文发表在2月和3月的2008年这些出版物主要是关于第2级2级模型和过程自动化

    List of available process models for steel mill developed by Metal Pass ( Dr. Benjamin Li )清单提供进程模型钢铁厂开发的金通行证( 本杰明李博士)

    Metal Pass software applications金通行证软件应用

    List of computer classes completed by Dr. Benjamin Li 名单计算机课完成博士本杰明李

    Metal Pass IT & Software Technology Resources 金通资讯科技软件技术资源

    See the profile for the primary consultant Dr. 见的配置文件的主要顾问博士 Benjamin Li . 本杰明李 You may also view our company and personnel profiles . 您也可以查看我们的公司和人员配置 Please contact us via email admin@metalpass.com or by phone (001) 503 516 9625 for top quality consulting services. 请通过电子邮件联系我们 admin@metalpass.com 或电话001503 516 9625的优质咨询服务

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