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Metal Pass 轧钢厂相关项目
 

VIII

轧制过程模拟-经验公式模拟

编号

项目名称

项目介绍

客户

63

摩根轧制力计算程序检查以找出弱点

Requested by Morgan [摩根]’s top management to examine [检查] the force [轧制力] prediction [轧制力预报] procedure [预报方式]. Attention was also focused to examine [检查] the algorithm [算法] and Material [材料] data [数据] used for Morgan [摩根]’s roll [轧辊] pass [道次] program [孔型设计程序] CAPE. It was found that the procedure [程续] used at the time was only valid for the strain [应变] rate [应变速度] below 100/s, while the actual rolling [轧制] process [轧制过程] had a strain [应变] rate [应变速度] up to 3000/s.

Morgan

64

摩根实验室轧机五年轧制试验的数据分析

 [数据] was collected in a five-year lab mill [试验轧机] test [试验], during which about 1000 sample [试样] were rolled [轧后]. For each rolled [轧后] piece, over 70 Parameter [参数], including free radius, cross section [断面] area, forward slip [前滑], etc. were measured [测量] or calculated. It was one of the primary data [数据] sources to develop rolling [轧制] process [轧制过程] model [模型]. However, due to certain weaknesses in the experiment design and limited [有限的] understanding of rolling [轧制] process [轧制过程], the prior engineers who designed the tests [试验] had difficulty deriving Mean [平均]ful model [模型] from such large-scale rolling [轧制] tests [试验]. In the new work the missing parts were added from other data [数据] sources (e.g., those from 15-year rolling [轧制] tests [试验] from the institute in Germany, in a four-stand [四机架] high-speed [高速] continuous mill [连续轧机]), to make the data [数据] fully useful.

Morgan

65

宽展模型开发,尤其针对高速轧制

The existing Shinokura formula [公式] used in Morgan [摩根]’s computer aided design was expanded to add more influence factor [影响系数]. Various spread [宽展] prediction [预报] procedure [预报方式], such as Hensel, Wusatowski, etc. were studied and verified [验证]/modified [修改] based on the large amount of experiment data [数据]. spread [宽展] procedure [程续] were later also verified [验证] by the field data [现场数据] collected from the No-Twist Mill [无扭轧机] (e.g. ASW mill), etc.

Morgan

66

兼适用于低速和高速轧机的准确的流变应力模型开发

Traditional flow stress [流变应力] model [模型] were verified [验证] and improved with the flow stress [流变应力] data [数据] I collected worldwide, and with mill results and especially field data [现场数据]. To fit high speed [速度] mill, traditional model [模型] (valid up to the strain [应变] rate [应变速度] 100/s) were extended to including the temperature [温度]/strain [应变] rate [应变速度] interactive [相互关联] factor to allow it to be valid up to the strain [应变] rate [应变速度] 500/s and can be roughly used for the high-speed [高速] rolling [轧制] up to the strain [应变] rate [应变速度] 3000/s (100m/s). This is the nearest approach to the highest rolling [轧制]. Neither formula [公式] is available nor the flow stress [流变应力] measurable in the range of 3000/s with constant strain [应变] rate [应变速度] values. flow stress [流变应力] model [模型] for major Grade [钢种] groups and key Grade [钢种] were determined based on the new formula [公式].

Morgan

67

为圆-椭圆和椭圆-圆道次开发的经验宽展估算模型

This was the direct modeling [模拟] of the spread [宽展] based on Morgan [摩根]’s lab mill [试验轧机] data [数据]. model [模型] can be used for the first assessment [预估] of the roll [轧辊] pass [道次] because it does not need so much geometry [几何形状] calculation [几何形状计算] as Shinokura formula [公式] does. Some colleagues did roll [轧辊] pass [道次] design [孔型设计] with ΔB = k ΔH to estimate width spread [宽展] from a height reduction [压下率], with k ~ 0.33 for OV-RD [椭圆-圆] and k ~ 0.6 for RD-OV [圆-椭圆]. Therefore, I developed [开发] a simple formula [公式] to determine value of the k by considering several key parameters [主要参数].

Morgan

68

钢轧钢厂轧制力模型开发,与平均流变应力,接触面积和形状因子的研究

Roll 轧辊] separating force [轧制力] during rolling [轧制] actually depends on three primary factors [因素]: the Mean [平均] flow stress [流变应力], the projective contact area [接触面积] [投射接触面积] and the shape [形状] factor [形状系数Q]. Mean [平均] flow stress [流变应力] depends on Material [材料] only (including deformation [变形] history), and the shape [形状] factor [形状系数Q] is affected by the strain [应变] state [应变状态] and stress state [应力状态] in the deformation [变形] zone [变形区]. Accurate prediction [预报] of the rolling [轧制] force [轧制力] requires that all those three factors [因素] be accurately modeled [建模], which was one of my primary areas of the rolling [轧制] process [轧制过程] modeling [轧制过程模拟]. I also studied various force [轧制力] prediction [轧制力预报] procedure [预报方式] for flat rolling [平棍轧制] [平辊轧制], which lead to only different shape [形状] factor [形状系数Q] Formulas [公式].

Morgan

69

接触面积的预测模型开发以求准确预测轧制力,特别是对型钢轧制

The shapes [形状] of the contact area [接触面积] for various rolling [轧制] process [轧制过程] [轧制过程] are complicated and are different in various pass [道次] sequence [道次系列]. Mathematical 项目介绍 of the actual shape [形状] and the projective contact area [接触面积] [投射接触面积] is critical [严峻] for accurate force [轧制力] prediction [轧制力预报]. contact area [接触面积] model [模型] for various pass [道次] sequence [道次系列], such as RD-OV [圆-椭圆], OV-RD [椭圆-圆], SQ-OV [方-椭圆], OV-SQ [椭圆-方], etc., were developed [开发] with the formulation [公式表述] of the actual shapes [形状].

Morgan

70

形状因子预测模型开发以求精确预测轧制力

Actual modeling [模拟] for the shape [形状] factor [形状系数Q] needs to consider friction [摩擦] condition [摩擦状况] and groove [孔型] geometry [孔型几何尺寸]. My modeling [模拟] for the shape [形状] factor [形状系数Q] started from an universal formula [公式] that covers all the pass [道次] sequence [道次系列], created by some German colleagues based on the tens years of measurement [测量] and modeling [模拟]. With rich experience results [试验结果] and mill field data [现场数据] at hand, I did verification [验证], modification [修改] and simplification, so I established accurate model [模型] for RD-OV [圆-椭圆], OV-RD [椭圆-圆], RD-RD (For Morgan [摩根] Sizing Mills [定径机]), SQ-OV [方-椭圆], OV-SQ [椭圆-方], etc. The model [模型] fit both the low speed [速度] rolling [轧制] and high speed [速度] rolling [轧制].

71

为低速和高速轧制的圆-椭圆和椭圆-圆道次进行的前滑模型开发

Neutral angle [中性角] model [模型] for RD-OV [圆-椭圆] and OV-RD [椭圆-圆] were established based on the lab mill [试验轧机] data [数据] and followed by necessary modification [修改]. On the basis, the forward slip [前滑] were calculated with Wusatowski procedure [程续]. predicted [预报的] result fits excellently with the field measurement [现场测试] from ASW NTM, etc.

Morgan

72

轧钢厂摩擦模型的开发以改进摩根的设计过程

The model [模型] considers factors [因素] such as type of groove [孔型], temperature [温度], speed [速度], steel grade [钢种], etc. As effects of temperature [温度] and steel grade [钢种], the metallurgical [金属学] constituent [金属学构成] of the scale and its property [性能] were also studied.

Morgan

73

精确的温度预报模型和热传递系数模型的开发

The model [模型] is based on the energy balance [能量平衡] between the stock [轧件] and rolls [辊]. Heat transfer coefficient [热传递系数] were based on the past measurement [测量] in various researches. Thermal properties [热性能参数] were all in temperature [温度] dependence [随温度变化的].

Morgan

74

ASW 无扭轧机数据处理和模型验证

Processed  [处理过的] ASW data [数据] pass [道次] by pass [逐道次的]; used the model [模型] I had developed [开发] to re-predict [再预报] the measured [测量] data [数据] and so, to verify [验证] and improve the developed [开发] models [开发的模型].

Morgan

75

对钢铁的热轧过程微观结构模型开发以预测再结晶,晶粒尺寸等

The model [模型] was developed [开发] by combining the major model [模型] (both Formulas [公式] and data [数据]) published worldwide. Quite a portion of my $10,000 research funds was spent for acquiring publication [发行物]. The model [模型] consists of the sub-model [子模型] to determine: (1) strain [应变] or time, for start and 50% completion of the dynamic [动态] and static [静态] recrystallizations [静态再结晶]; each of those may consist of two or more ways of prediction [预报]; (2) volume fraction [体积分数] of, and grain size [晶粒尺寸] after, the dynamic [动态]al and static [静态] recrystallizations [静态再结晶]; and (3) grain growth [晶粒长大], equivalent [当量] grain size [晶粒尺寸] at the start and end of a pass [道次], and the equivalent [当量] inter-pass [道次间隙] time [道次间隙时间] under temperature [温度] modification [修改]. Over 10 Formulas [公式] and overt 30 coefficient [系数] were used to describe the model [模型] of a steel grade [钢种]. Microstructural model [微观组织模型] for over 10 steel grade [钢种] were collected. model [模型] were examine [检查]d with data [数据] collected from publication [发行物].

Morgan

76

张力对宽展, 前滑和轧制力修正模型 的开发

Tension [张力] correction [张力修正] to spread [宽展] and forward slip [前滑] is critical [严峻] for roll [轧辊] pass [道次] study of existing No-Twist Mill [无扭轧机] (NTM) because all stands are tied (driven [驱动] by a single motor [马达]) and it is very hard to avoid tension [张力]. Without this correction, any field data [现场数据] from the NTM would not lead to any Mean [平均]ful model [模型]. In the Development [开发], German results were accepted but Japanese formula [公式] (definition of tension [张力定义] and tension [张力] correction [张力修正] Formulas [公式]) were used. However, Japanese results, which were based on products of larger size, didn’t fit the NTM data [数据] and thus were filtered [过滤] out.

Morgan

77

关于机架间张力确定的开发

The Development [开发] involved the definition of tension [张力定义]. Many German results on tension [张力] effects [张力效果] were based on the definition of tension [张力定义] as the relative difference of the speed [速度]. The actual tension [张力], calculated from the specially modified [修改] flow stress [流变应力] model [模型] was used (even the best flow stress [流变应力] formula [公式] available still doesn’t work for a small strain [应变] below 0.05).

Morgan

78

轧件轧后与辊非接触区轮廓形状的模型开发

The free contour [与辊非接触区轮廓] was modeled [建模] based on the measurement [测量] in Morgan [摩根]’s lab mill [试验轧机] data [数据]. This model [模型] was used for accurate calculation [精确计算] of the rolled [轧后] cross-section [横断面] area [横断面积].

Morgan

79

流变应力模拟程序以基于流变应力基础数据库产生流变应力模型

The program accesses database [数据库] to read in the flow stress [流变应力] in various strain [应变], strain [应变] rate [应变速度] and temperature [温度], and calculates flow stress [流变应力] coefficient [流变应力系数] for temperature [温度], strain [应变] and strain [应变] rate [应变速度]. The calculation was based on various criteria [准则]. See www.metalpass [金通].com/bli/L2Net/FSmodel [模型].htm. The program determines factors [因素] m1 to m5 and A1 to A3, and Kf0, through both linear [线性] and non-linear [非线性] regression [回归]. It also allow user to select special needs for modeling [模拟], such as min-mid-max, best peak strain [应力最大值应变], best R-square [R-平方准则], etc.

Metal Pass

80

从工作告,出版物等对轧钢厂实验结果广泛的数据收集,数据结果存储于数据库中

Mill test [试验] results on rolling [轧制] and controlled [控制] cooling [控制冷却], collected in past years as published or unpublished [没发表的] reports, published papers, books, Ph.D. dissertations, etc., were processed [处理过的] and stored in the relational database [数据库]. Great portions of the data [数据] were roll [轧辊] pass [道次] related measurement [测量], force [轧制力] measurement [测量], controlled [控制] cooling [控制冷却] data [数据], rolled [轧后] product properties [轧后产品性能] and a portion of the microstructure [微观组织] data [数据]. Further data [数据] would be added into the database [数据库].

Metal Pass

81

约2000个钢种的流变应力数据的收集

Flow stress [流变应力] data [数据] and model [模型] were collected from various available sources. Currently about 2000 model [模型] are available on the web. Other data [数据], another 2000 sets, et., would soon be processed [处理过的] and uploaded [上载].

Metal Pass

82

坐标测量工具以读取曲线(如流变应力曲线)数据

This application was initial [初始]ly developed [开发] to measure [测量] flow stress [流变应力] from flow stress [流变应力] curves [曲线]. The scanned [扫描的] picture with the curves [曲线] is to be measured [测量] for coordinate [坐标]. Mouse clicking is made against the points on the existing curve [曲线] to draw another curve [曲线], in order to make sure the clicking is not off the line. For every click, the coordinate [坐标] is recorded. The coordinate [坐标] is immediate calculated into the physical value based on an initial [初始] setup against the coordinate [坐标] system [坐标系] in the picture. The value from every click is displayed on the form for double-checking. When the Submit button is clicked, the data [数据] is sent to the database [数据库].

Metal Pass

83

对金属性能的数据清单汇编(约3000个)

Compiled data [数据] list for the metal properties [金属性能]. Particular focus was on high temperature [温度] properties [高温性能] while room temperature [温度] properties [室温性能] were also collected.

Metal Pass

84

轧制,控制水冷和控制空冷的热传递系数模型开发

For interface between rolls [辊] and hot metals during rolling [轧制], for steel cooling [冷却] in the air in the function of the travel speed [速度] and environment temperature [环境温度], and for the controlled [控制] water cooling [控制水冷] depending on water flow [水流] volume [体积水流量], water pressure [水压], water temperature [水温] and turbulence [搅动], etc. For example, for the water box cooling [冷却] alone, several hundred pages of the field-test [试验] reports were used. High quality model [模型] were derived from the rich mill data [数据].

Metal Pass

85

不同类型的轧制过程中各种钢种的宽展模型开发

Some stainless steel may have twice as high as spread [宽展] as the plain carbon [普碳] steel [碳钢] [普碳钢], while other stainless steels may have low spread [宽展]. Different metals have different spread [宽展] tendency.

Metal Pass

86

不同类型的轧制过程中各种钢种的前滑模型开发

This part of the model [模型] focused on the steel grade [钢种] influence on the forward slip [前滑]. It was the further Development [开发] based on the unpublished [没发表的] writing of Dr. A. Hensel. data [数据] for over 30 steel grade [钢种] were developed [开发]. Not to be published but is available in the further mill project [轧钢厂项目].

Metal Pass

87

摩擦模型的进一步开发- 创建一个适合所有轧钢过程的摩擦模型

Different Material [材料] have different friction [摩擦] values; for the same pair of the Material [材料], friction [摩擦] depends on surface condition (roughness, amount and type of the lubricant [润滑剂], etc.), groove [孔型] type, speed [速度], and temperature [温度]. temperature [温度] has different effects to friction [摩擦] in different temperature [温度] range. Formulas [公式] were collected and further developed [开发] with available new data [数据].

Metal Pass

88

出版一本关于计算机模拟在钢热轧过程应用的专著(德国1996)

Compared Experimental and Theoretical Investigations [理论研究] of Forming Technical Parameter [参数] in shape [形状] Rolling [型钢轧制] [型钢轧制] with Example of the Hot rolling [轧制] of angle steel [角钢]. TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany, 1996 (in German). ISBN 3-86012-029-8.

89

写了一本书 - 钢铁厂:过程建模与计算机应用

Broad topics, with fundamentals [基础], technoLog [日志]ies and industrial project examples. The book is not yet intended for publishing. Contents may be available for clients or work colleagues. See www.metalpass [金通].com/bli/home/book2.htm (under updating).

Metal Pass

90

轧钢厂资源的收集和处理

Collected rolling [轧制] Mill [轧钢厂] modeling [模拟] resources for over 20,000 pages; processed [处理过的] over 10,000 pages of the resources

Metal Pass

 

    项目分类清单 (客户名注释)

     1.  二级系统开发
     2. 二级系统支持
     3.  力学性能改进
     4.  钢厂应用软件开发
     5.  产量的提高
     6.  轧制和道次规程开发
     7.  轧制过程模拟-数字法模拟
     8.  轧制过程模拟-经验公式模拟
     9.  产品形状和成材率改进
    10. 网路和网路资源

 

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