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This is to calculate roll separating force and rolling torque, power. Applications in this section consist of:

Every detail involved is carefully determined:

  • Projective contact area. Elementary slab method is used by constructing imaginary contour, together with modifications from spread, pass sequence and fill ratio, etc. For some passes, contact area models are used based on the studies on the shapes of contact areas in various pass sequence. 
  • Mean flow stress. The strain along the contact length ranges from 0 at the entrance, to the max. strain (pass strain) at the exit. A mean (or average) strain is used to achieve high accuracy. Flow stress model is specifically developed for a wide strain rate range 0.05-500/s (applicable up to 3000/s).
  • Shape factor (stress factor). This factor covers pass sequence, entry billet shape, contact, etc. The shape factor model used is among those developed through a ten-year rolling process research in a four-stand high-speed continuous mill (speed up to over 70m/s).

During torque calculation, experimentally established model for lever arm ratio in each pass sequence is employed, besides the accurate calculation of the roll separating force.

Resources:
    Force and torque calculation during shape rolling
    Flow stress and modeling
    Load factor

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