This is to calculate roll separating force and rolling torque, power.
Applications in this section consist of:
Every detail involved is carefully determined:
Projective contact area. Elementary slab
method is used by constructing imaginary contour, together
with modifications from spread, pass sequence and fill ratio, etc. For
some passes, contact area models are used based on the studies on the shapes of
contact areas in various pass sequence.
Mean flow stress. The strain along the contact
length ranges from 0 at the entrance, to the max. strain (pass
strain) at the exit. A mean (or average) strain is used
to achieve high accuracy.
Flow stress model is specifically developed for a wide strain rate range
0.05-500/s (applicable up to 3000/s).
Shape factor (stress factor). This factor covers pass
sequence, entry billet shape, contact, etc. The shape factor model used
is among those developed through a ten-year rolling process
research in a four-stand high-speed continuous mill (speed up to over
During torque calculation, experimentally established model for lever arm ratio
in each pass sequence is employed, besides the accurate calculation of the
roll separating force.
Force and torque
calculation during shape rolling
Flow stress and modeling