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1 Recent Publications of Metal Pass (February-March 2008)

Introduction: Six papers on steel automation especially on the Level 2 improvement and further development were written in the period from mid-February to mid-March and were published.
2

Report on the development of steel mill Level 2 supervisory system (75 pages)

Contents

(1) Rolling Mill Level 2 Systems
     1.1 Reheating Furnace Level 2
     1.2 Level 2 System for Rod Mills
     1.3 A Cold Mill Control And Automation System
     1.4 Coil Tracking and Maintenance Management
(2) Level 3 Systems
     2.1 Level 3 Scheduling (Mill Scheduling)
     2.2 Level 3 Reporting
(3) General Structure and Layout of a Meltshop Level 2
     - Network
     - PLC Data Collection & Level 1
     - Database
     - General Functions of each Sub-Systems
     - Furnace/CAS/RM or EAF/LMF/CAS/RM
     - L2 Monitor
(4) Implementation of Level 2 System for the Meltshop
     4.1 Scheduling
     4.2 Interface to PLC
     4.3 Data Manager
     4.4 Heat Tracking System
     4.5 Interface to Database Server
     4.6 Interface to Labs (Chemical and Mechanical)
     4.7 Inter-Application Server (EAF-LMF-CAS)
     4.8 Process Modeling
Total pages: 75

3

Development for an Upgradeable Level 2 System with Metallurgical Principles (30 pages)

Project Summary: The proposed project will develop a supplement software package for the existing steel mill automation system to accurately predict rolling process parameters, by fully applying the metallurgical principles, rolling process models and most current information technologies. Since long the steel mills has increasingly applied technologies such as microslloying, physical metallurgy and controlled rolling. The metallurgical parameters such as the strain retained from the previous passes and the grain size pass by pass, play a critical role in the model accuracy in the automation system. The current systems, however, usually only treat the steel rolling as a mechanical process and ignore its metallurgical phenomena. The inaccurate automation systems create poor draft schedules that lead to poor product quality (shape and properties), low production efficiency and high energy consumption.

The proposed system will simulate microstructure evolution, integrate about 100 rolling process models and apply intelligent learning technologies, so that the accuracy for the rolling parameter prediction is sufficiently high. The software package will use most current information technologies, in comparison with many current packages which are still running on old OpenVMS rather than Windows. The technology will be commercialized as a new module within the company's existing automation system, and it will performs three possible functions: (1) it predicts metallurgical parameters, such as the retained strain and initial grain size for each pass; (2) it provides a full range of rolling process parameters and it may also modify the draft schedules created by the existing model; and, (3) it replace existing Level 2 model in the current automation system.

4 Strip Mill Process Modeling and Computer Integration (63 pages)

Introduction: This research document deals with various issues of the strip mill modeling and computer control, especially the Level 2 system.

Contents:

Part I:  Strip Mill Process Model and Control System 2
 
Strip Mill Setup Model 2
General 2
Parameters to be Predicted 2
Function to be performed 3
Prediction 3
Data I/O 3
Mill Setup 3
Models available through partners 4
Steel Mill Equipment 5
Mill Operation 6
Control System 6
Mill Control & Information Systems development 6
 
Part II:  Multi-Level Control System 7
 
2.1 Introduction to Multi-Level Control 7
Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy 7
Evaluation of Purdue Model 8
Control & Information System 8
Evaluation of Level 2 Control System 9
Advantages of Using Level 2 Model 9
Disadvantages of Using Level 2 Model 9
Types of Level 2 Models 9
Model Complexity and Accuracy 10
Model Simplification 11
 
2.2 Level 2/Level 3 Function Specification 11
Functions of Level-2 Model 11
Tuning and Learning 12
Level 2 Force Set Up Calculation 13
Data Flow of Level 2 Set Up Model 14
Practical Considerations on Set Up 14
Level-2 Learning Model 15
Relationship between Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 16
Web-based Automation System 17
 
Part III: Rolling Mill Basics 21
 
Calculation of Rolling Force 21
Factors Affecting Rolling Force 21
 
Part IV: Crown 22
 
Crown 22
Thermal/Wear Models 23
Factors Affecting Thermal Profiles 24
Thermal Models - Roll Cooling 25
Two Approaches on Thermal Models 25
Lumped System ?Results 26
1-D Exact Solution 27
 
V. Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) 27
 
Gauge Control ?Single Stand 27
Control Theories 28
Mill Modulus Concept 28
Gaugemeter Principle 28
Simís Gaugemeter Principle 29
Application of Gaugemeter Principle 30
Mass Flow Rule in Roll Bite 30
Force/Torque/Slip Sensitivity 30
Automatic Gauge Control 31
Controlling Systems 32
AGC Step Response in Time Domain 32
Gauge Control ?Tandem Stands 33
Solving Mill Dynamics 34
Rolling Schedules for Case Study 35
Exit Gauge Changes Due to Disturbance of Screw Position and Friction Coef. 35
Exit Gauge Changes, Due to Disturbance of Speed, Entry/Anneal Gauge, and Hardness 36
Control System of a Tandem Mill 36
Exit Gage Frequency Response 37
Rolling Mill Gauge Control Components 37
Definition of Gauge 37
Definitions of Profile 37
Gauging Systems 38
Discussion on Gauge Deviation Bandwidth 39
AGC Requirements 40
Mill Threading Considerations 40
Material Stiffness Gain Calculations 41
AGC System Design Considerations 42
Constant Mass Flow Considerations 43
 
Part VI: Model Based Thickness Control of the Cold Strip Rolling Process 48
 
Thickness Control 48
Thickness Control of a Reversing Cold Rolling Mill 48
The Drive System of a Reversing Mill 50
Sensors of a Cold Rolling Mill 50
Roll Adjusting System 52
AGC - Automatic Gauge Control 53
In-Gap Control and Similar Methods 54
Gaugemeter Control 55
Monitor Control 57
Feed Forward Control 58
Mass-Flow Control 59
Strip flatness and profile 60
 
Summary 61
5 Plate Mill Level 2 Model A: Mathematical Models (5 pages)

Abstract: This file describes the basic mathematical formulas as the algorithm of a plate mill Level 2 model, to predict parameters such as Q-factor, Flow stress, Force, Torque, and temperature (deformation work, radiation, conduction and mill water, etc.).
6 Plate Mill Level 2 Model B: Mill Operation Prediction (13 pages)

Abstract: This document describes the logics for the mill operation processes and parameters prediction. The contents can be broken into following sections. (1) Operation practice handling including Edge Setup and Learning, Controlled Rolling Model (hold, two-piece rolling, etc.), Shape Model, Mill Deflection Model, Work Roll Thermal and Wear Model, Work Roll Bending Model, and Leveller Setup and Learning, etc. (2) Learning Model, which includes Adaptive Learning, Short-Term Correction, Long-term learning, Flow stress Model Adaption, Torque Model Adaption, and Temperature Model Adaption, etc.
7 Plate Mill Level 2 Model C: Programming (52 pages)

Introduction: This document describes the implementation logics for the major components and sub-ystems of the Level 2 model.

Contents:

1

Mill Model and Model Components

1

2

Programming Issues

2

2.1

Data Structure and Files

2

2.2

Data Files

2

2.2.1

Data Files

2

2.2.2

Global Commons

2

2.2.3

Local Commons

3

2.3

Data File Descriptions

3

2.3.1

Mill Constants File

3

2.3.2

Grade Files

4

2.3.3

Family Files

4

2.3.4

Product Files

5

2.3.5

Practice Files

5

2.3.6

Width Spread and Recovery File

5

2.3.7

Alternate Gauge File

5

3

Mill Setup (Draft Distribution) Model

7

3.1

General

7

3.2

Model Modes of Operation

8

3.3

Inputs to Setup Model

8

3.4

Outputs from the Setup Model

9

3.5

Alternate gauges

9

3.6

Other Setup Functions

9

3.7

Mill Setup Software Structure

10

3.8

Software Routines

10

4

Roll Bite and Temperature Evolution Models

17

4.1

Software Routines

17

5

Edge Setup and Learning

19

5.1

General

19

5.1.1

Edger Model Parameters and Flags

19

5.2

Software and programming Issues

20

5.2.1

Edger Setup Software Structure (DD_CALC)

20

5.2.2

Edger Setup Software Routines

20

5.2.3

Edger Learning Software Structure (LEARNING)

22

5.2.4

Edger Learning Software Routines

22

6

Controlled Rolling Model

23

6.1

Software Routines

23

7

Shape Model

23

8

Mill Deflection Model

26

8.1

Software Structure

26

8.2

Software Routines

27

9

Work Roll Thermal and Wear Models

29

9.1

Software and Programming

29

9.1.1

Software Structure

29

9.1.2

Software Routines

29

10

Work Roll Bending Model

30

10.1

Software

30

10.1.1

Bending Setup Subroutines

30

10.1.2

Crown Learning

31

10.1.3

Crown Learning Subroutines

31

11

Adaptive Learning Model

33

11.1

Software

33

11.1.1

Software Structure

33

11.1.2

Software Routines

33

12

Leveller Setup and Learning

39

12.1

General

39

12.2

Software

40

12.2.1

Leveller Data Tables

40

12.2.2

Leveller Gap Setup

40

12.2.3

Leveller Gap Setup Routines

40

12.2.4

Leveller Torque and Gap Learning

41

12.2.5

Leveller Gap and Torque Learning Routines

41

13

Models Interface

42

13.1

General

42

13.1.1

Models Interface

42

13.2

Software Structure

43

14

Model File Directory Structure

45

14.1

General

45

14.2

Directory Contents

46

15

Monitoring Model Performance

47

15.1

Man Machine Interface

47

15.2

Model Evaluation Logs

47

15.3

Program Event Files

48

15.4

Error Files from Program Crashes

48

16

Model Tuning

49

16.1

General

49

16.2

Mill Constants

49

17

Setting Up New Grade and Family Files

49

17.1

General

49

17.2

Grade File Copying Procedure

50

17.3

Family File Copying Procedure

50

18

Models Utility Programs and Procedures

50

18.1

General

50

18.2

Command Procedures

50

18.3

Utility Programs

52

8

Plate Mill Level 2 Model D: Monitoring Model Performance (25 pages)

Abstract: This file illustrates the design and the application of the log files, so that the Level 2 administrator can monitor the model performance by reviewing or evaluating the log files. Examples are illustrated to discuss Mill constants, Mill process and operation parameters, Grade constants, and Family constants, etc.

9 Plate Mill Level 3/Level 2 Interaction (18 pages)

Introduction: This document specifies the design of the Level3 to Level2 Primary Data Input (PDI) file for the combination mill. The PDI is the production scheduling instruction that the Level 2 uses as guideline to execute the production operation.

Contents

1

Level 2 / Level 3 Interaction

1

1.1

Introduction

1

1.1.1

Communication Protocol

1

1.1.2

PDI File

2

1.2

Data Contained in the PDI Files

3

1.2.1

PDI File Directory Structure

3

1.2.2

PDI File Detail Slab Information and Record Structure

3

1.2.3

Slab Information

4

1.2.4

Practices

5

1.2.5

Coil Information

6

1.2.6

Max Plate Information

7

1.2.7

Mini Max Plate Information

9

1.3

Mill Level 2 Control System Requirements

11

1.3.1

Required Tests

11

1.3.2

Practices

11

1.3.3

Marking Instructions

11

1.3.4

Processing Instructions

11

1.3.5

Max Plate Information

12

1.3.6

Mini Max Plate Information

12

1.3.7

Stacker Location

12

1.4

Software Module Process and Data-flow

13

1.4.1

Main Program Module

13

1.4.2

Description of Selected Functions

15

10 Level 2 to Level 3 Database Tables (5 pages)

Abstract: This is the cross-refererence for the definition of both the data structures and the database table columns. Over 20 data definition tables are listed in this document. The definition is used to implement the functions to move data from Level 2 system to the Level 3 database. Related data include those for reheating furnace, rolling mills and the controlled cooling operation.
11 Level 2 Management - Design Document (20 pages)

This design document describes the tools or software modules for the Level 2 system management in various platforms.

Contents:

1 Overview 1
1.1 Level 2 Modules 1
1.2 Application Software 2
1.2.1 System Data Flow 3
1.3 Utility Programs 11
1.3.1 Parameter Editor 11
2 General Design 12
2.1 Directory structure 12
2.2 Operator Interface 14
3 Data Manager 14
3.1 Data management 14
3.2 MMF creation 14
3.3 MMI data supply 15
3.4 DBMS data preparation 15
3.5 Event Data 15
3.5.1 Windows 15
3.5.2 OpenVMS 15
3.6 Standard Subroutines 15
3.6.1 Windows and OpenVMS 15
3.6.2 OpenVMS only 16
4 Process Manager (L2Mgr) 18
5 Inter-Process communication 18
6 Mill Interface 19
6.1 Mill 19
6.2 Downcoiler/Leveller 19
6.3 Shear Trimmer 19
6.4 Coiling bed 19
7 Reheating furnace interface 19
8 ACC interface 19
9 Other interfaces 19
12 Tippins Level 2 Source Code Functions Cross-Reference (12 pages)

Abstract: This is an Excel file based on the research of the Tippins Level 2 source code, especially those implementing Level 2 model. The file lists Function Name, Description, Called_By (called by which functions), Chapter (in the document), and Folder (in the Level 2 production server), etc. This files describes over 300 functions. (The file was created inside a consulting project to improve the Tippins Level 2 model).
13

Meltshop EAF/LMF Level 2 General Function Specification (28 pages)

Abstract: This document outlines the general function specifications from the user's perspective. Besides the general screens and functions (Scheduling, Charging, Delays, Events, Parts life, Heat Line-up, Process tracking, Cutting, etc.), it also covers some calculation algorithms such as those for Scrap and alloy addition, and chemistry prediction and temperature modeling, etc.

14 Level 2 Data and Database Design (49 pages)

Introduction: This document (also served as the Chapter 4 of the book
***)  coves detailed data and database design for the meltshop Level 2 systems (EAF/LMF Level 2 and Caster Level 2). It includes designs for data variables, data structures (in the programming level) and database tables (e.g. in Oracle). and cross-reference for the data, data structure and database. It also provides the cross-references among the data structure, Memory-Mapped-Files, flat files and database tables.
15 Level 2 System Configuration (24 pages)

Introduction: This document (also served as the Chapter 5 of the book*** ) provides guidelines for the system integration among the Level 1, Level 2, Level 3 and the general IT system in a steel plant environment. The configuration for the Level 2 systems covers HMI computer configuration (including Windows Registry configuration), Level 2 server configuration (including those for Windows Registry), and Level 2 manager setup, etc.
16 Level 2 Interfaces (15 pages)

Introduction: Communication interface (Chapter 7 of the book*** ) of the Level 2 system with Scrap Handling System computer, EAL PLCs, LMF PLCs, Caster PLCs and Chemical Lab data acquisition system, etc. Level 2 collects the data based on the designated PLC addresses and other system interfaces.
17 Human-Machine Interface (HMI) screen Implementation (5 pages)

Introduction: This file (Chapter 8 of the book***)) discusses dozens of Visual Basic classes that implement the HMI screens. About 50 well-designed screens were used in the Level 2 systems that the reporter designed. Code reuse and object-oriented principle were integrated in the design and implementation.
18 EAF/LMF Level 2 implementation (13 pages)

Abstract: This document (Chapter 9 of the book*** )) discussess with software programming issues for the EAF/LMF Level 2 system. Contents include Memory-Mapped Files (MMFs) structures and coding, diagrams on class composition and derivation (parent/derived classes), diagrams on structure association and composition and global structures, and the detailed code discussion on some key classes such as those to send data into the Oracle database.
19 Caster Level 2 implementation (10 pages)

Abstract: This file (Chapter 10 of the book***)) discusses the software programming issues with both diagram illustration and text explanation. Topics covered are such as the association and composition of over a dozen structures, association and derivation of about 20 classes, difinition of the major structures, and the properties and functions for each of the primary classes. In addition, code examples of the major classes and implementations are discussed.
20 Level 2 Data and Data Storage Implementation (36 pages)

Abstract: This document (Chapter 11 of the book***)) deals with the software programming of the following issues: (1) Table category and table functions; (2) Definition of major parameters during coding, and the links to the corresponding columns in Oracle table; (3) Data linking among various Level 2 systems (EAF/LMF Level2 and Caster Level 2); (4) Diagrams on data association among PLCs, Level 2 systems, HMIs and Oracle Database; (5) Detailed table definitions for Oracle tables; and (6) definition of related flat file structures and some code examples.
21 Level 2 Data Security Design and Implementation (5 page)

Abstract: This document describes the design and implementation of the steel mill Level 2 supervisory system to guarentee there is no data loss during the Level 2 operation. The Windows Level 2 server sometimes lost connection with the Oracle data and thus caused data loss. The fix to the problem was to store the SQL INSERT scripts (containing data) in the Level 2 server whenever the Level 2 found no connections with the Oracle database server; and whenever the Level 2 server regained the connection with the database server, it would immediately execute the INSERT script to send the kept data into the database server. This file contains the class diagrams and function descriptions for the implementation of such a data security component.
22 Software and Technologies Related to the Level 2 Projects (11 pages)

Abstract: This document (Chapter 13 of the book*** )) introduces major software packages and technologies based on which the said Level 2 software systems were designed and implemented. Selected topics include: (1) Introduction of RSView and RSLinks; (2) RSView basic setup issues; (3) Introduction to DDE, DDE Link and Network DDE; (4) PLC card (e.g. Allen-Bradley 1784-KT card) configuration; (5) DDE conversation setup via RSView; (6) OPC basics; and (7) Oracle database topics collection and Oracle setup through Windows ControlPanel.
23 Appendix: EAF Bits (6 pages)

Introduction: This is one of the most fundamental design documents in bridging the EAF PLC bits and the Level 2 parameters. This PDF file is based on the original Excel work sheets.
24

Steel Mill Slab Management System Design and Function Specification (50 pages)

Summary: This is the design by Dr. Benjamin Li  on the steel plate mill slab providing and optimization. Besides a slab inventory system for slab history tracking and management, there are slab size optimization and slab grade optimization. The optimizations are based on the steel rolling process models established by Dr. Benjamin Li.

25 Short evaluation of ABB Level 2 supervisory system (25 pages)

Abstract: The report covers the tracking and reporting system, and hardware, software and services, etc. The software includes functions such as order management, material tracking, tracking correction, data security, calculation, delay handling, roll management, equipment monitor, and various data reports, etc.
26 Evaluation of Morgan's Mill Supervisory System Proposal (20 pages).

Abstract: Though many or Morgan's mill use ABB control, Morgan has its own additions to the control vendor's system or its own proposals in this aspect. The evaluated proposals include mill scheduling editor, mill tracking, Stelmor conveyor tracking, Roll management, etc. in addition to general functions of a supervisory system.
27 OpenVMS User Guide Created for Steel Mill Systems (500 Pages)

Introduction: This is a 500-page document created particularly for the steel mill engineers who use OpenVMS to run their engineering applications such as the Level 2. Some steel mill applications based on OpenVMS are used as example
28  Metal Pass 108 Mill-related Projects

Introduction: The projects are primarily focused on steel mill Level 2 and mill process modeling. 96 of them were done by 
Dr. Benjamin Li while the rest 12 were from other consultants.
29 Metallurgical, Modeling and Software Engineering Issues in the Further Development of the Steel Mill Level 2 Models (Extracted from the paper published in AIST 2008 Conference)

  • Level 2 Model Basics
  • Metallurgical Issues in Level 2
  • Modeling Issues in Level 2
  • Software Engineering Issues in Level 2
  • Next-Generation Level 2 System
  • *** Some documents were used as a chapter of a book in writing on Steel Mill Process Modeling and Computer Application. Due to the large amount of the first-hand results, the book is now intended to be used as the consulting project resources rather than for publishing with a publisher.

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